Mechanical engineering is based on the theoretical basis of relevant natural sciences and technical sciences, combined with technical experience in production practice, to study and solve all the theoretical and practical problems in the development, design, manufacturing, installation, use and repair of various machinery. .
Machinery is one of the five elements (people, capital, energy, materials, and machinery) for production and services in modern society, and it participates in the production of energy and materials.
The development of machining technology
Before the industrial revolution, most of the machinery was wooden structures made by carpenters. Metal (mainly steel and iron) was only used to make instruments, clocks, locks, pumps, and small parts on wooden machinery. Metal processing mainly relies on the meticulous workmanship of the mechanic to achieve the required precision.
Development of Basic Theory of Mechanical Engineering
Before the 18th century, machinists relied solely on personal experience, intuition and craftsmanship to make machinery, and had little to do with science.
It was not until the 18th to 19th centuries that the basic theory surrounding mechanical engineering gradually formed. Power machinery was first integrated with science, such as the theories of the inventors of the steam engine T. Savery and Watt applied physicists D. Papan and J. Black, physicists S. Carnot, WJM Rankin and Kelvin Based on the practice of steam engine, a new discipline-thermodynamics, etc. was established.
At the beginning of the 19th century, the study of mechanism structure and movement in machinery was first listed as a course of the Higher Engineering School (Paris Polytechnic Institute). Since the second half of the 19th century, design calculations have taken into account material fatigue. Subsequently, fracture mechanics, experimental stress analysis, finite element method, mathematical statistics, and electronic computers were successively used in design calculations.
Service areas of mechanical engineering
The service area of mechanical engineering is very wide. All departments that use machinery, tools, and energy and material production do not require mechanical engineering services.
Modern mechanical engineering has 5 major service areas:
- Develop and provide energy conversion machinery, including various power machinery that converts thermal energy, chemical energy, atomic energy, electrical energy, fluid pressure energy, and natural mechanical energy into mechanical energy suitable for applications, and convert mechanical energy into other energy required Energy conversion machinery;
- Develop and provide machinery for the production of various products, including agricultural, forestry, animal husbandry, fishery machinery, and mining machinery, as well as various heavy industrial machinery and light industrial machinery, etc.;
- Develop and provide machinery for various services, such as material handling machinery, transportation machinery, medical machinery, office machinery, ventilation, heating, and air conditioning equipment, and environmental protection equipment such as dust removal, purification, and noise reduction;
- Develop and provide machinery for home and personal life, such as washing machines, refrigerators, clocks, cameras, sports equipment, and entertainment equipment, etc.;
- Develop and provide various mechanical weapons.